Chemotherapy Pill : Fludarabine

Chemotherapy Pill : Fludarabine

Chemotherapy Pill : Fludarabine

Fludarabine is a chemotherapy medicine used to treat certain types of cancer by destroying cancerous cells. It is known as the brand name Fludara. Fludarabine may also be referred to as Fludarabine phosphate, 2-fluoroadenine aribinoside 5-phosphate, and FAMP.

Fludarabine has been available for use since the early 1990s, and is a member of the group of chemotherapy drugs known as antimetabolites. Antimetabolites interfere with the genetic material (DNA) inside the cancer
cells and prevent them from further dividing and growing more cancer cells.

Chemotherapy Pill : Purpose

Fludarabine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients must have a disease that did not respond to other treatment or a disease that became worse during other treatment. Fludarabine has also been used to treat Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, macroglobulinemic lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and hairy cell leukemia.

Chemotherapy Pill : Dosage

Fludarabine is a clear solution that is administered
through a vein.

Afludarabine dose can be determined using a mathematical calculation that measures a person’s body surface area (BSA). This number is dependent upon a patient’s height and weight. The larger the person, the greater the body surface area. BSA is measured in the units known as square meter
(m2). The body surface area is calculated and then multiplied by the drug dosage in milligrams per square meter (mg/m2). This calculates the actual dose a patient is to receive.

The approved dose for chronic lymphocytic leukemia is 25 milligrams per square meter per day for 5 days in a row. The fludarabine is given intravenously into a vein over a 30-minute to 2-hour time period. This 5-day
cycle is repeated every 4 weeks.

The dose of fludarabine may need to be decreased in patients who have kidney problems. (Chemotherapy Pill)

Chemotherapy Pill : Precautions

Blood counts will be monitored regularly while on fludarabine therapy. During a certain time period after receiving fludarabine, there is an increased risk of getting infections.

Caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary exposure to crowds and people with infections. Patients with a known previous allergic reaction to
chemotherapy drugs should tell their doctor.

Patients who may be pregnant or are trying to become pregnant should tell their doctor before receiving fludarabine. Chemotherapy can cause men and
women to be sterile, or unable to have children. It is unknown if fludarabine has this effect on humans.

Patients should check with their doctors before receiving live virus vaccines while on chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy Pill : Side effects

The most common side effect expected from taking fludarabine is low blood counts (myelosuppression). When the white blood cell count is lower than normal (neutropenia), patients are at an increased risk of developing a fever and infections. Patients may need to be treated with antibiotics at this point. The platelet blood count can also be decreased due to fludarabine administration, but generally returns to normal within 2 weeks after the end of the infusion. Platelets are blood cells that cause clots to form to stop bleeding. When the platelet count is low, patients are at an increased risk for bruising and bleeding. Fludarabine causes low red blood cell counts (anemia).
Low red counts make people feel tired and dizzy.

Fludarabine can cause the development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which occurs when the body begins to destroy its own red blood cells. It is an uncommon side effect, but very serious when it occurs.

Common side effects from fludarabine include nausea and vomiting. If nausea and vomiting are a problem, patients can be given antiemetics before receiving fludarabine. This medication helps prevent or decrease these side
effects. Other common side effects include fever, chills, joint pain, fluid gain, fatigue, sleepiness, pain, muscle ache, weakness, and infection. Other less common side effects include loss of appetite (anorexia), diarrhea, abnormal touch sensation, cough, pneumonia, and shortness of breath.

Damage to the nerves and nervous system tissues can occur with fludarabine. Side effects due to this nerve damage include sleepiness, confusion, weakness, fatigue, irritability, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, visual changes, and difficulty walking.

Infrequent side effects of fludarabine are skin rashes, pain, itching, fever, lung problems, insomnia, headache, muscle and joint aches, swelling, and
decreased blood pressure.

Rare side effects of fludarabine include mouth sores, constipation and abdominal cramping, bleeding from the bladder, hair loss, hearing problems, and liver and kidney problems.

Fludarabine can cause the rapid breakdown of cancer cells. Patients who have large numbers of cancer cells in their bloodstream can develop a problem known as tumor lysis syndrome. The symptoms of this syndrome
include pain in the lower back and blood in the urine. A patient can develop high or low levels of electrolytes and high levels of uric acid, which can lead to gout and kidney damage. The drug allopurinol may be given to patients prior to fludarabine treatment to prevent this from occurring. Drinking an increased amount of liquids also may help prevent the kidney damage.

Chemotherapy Pill

Chemotherapy Pill : Carboplatin

Chemotherapy Pill : Carboplatin

Chemotherapy Pill : Carboplatin

Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat cancer by interfering with the growth of cancer cells. At the molecular level, carboplatin causes cancer cells to destroy themselves through the mechanism of apoptosis. Carboplatin is marketed under the brand name Paraplatin; it may also be referred to as CBDCA, JM-8, or carboplatinum.

Carboplatin is a member of the group of chemotherapy drugs known as heavy metal-like alkylating agents. Alkylating agents interfere with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) inside the cancer
cells and prevent them from further dividing and growing more cancer cells.

Chemotherapy Pill : Purpose

Carboplatin was approved in 1989 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the palliative treatment of ovarian cancer. The term palliative means that the treatment is not intended to cure but only to relieve symptoms. Carboplatin has also been used to treat other types of cancer, including head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, endometrial cancer, testicular cancer, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and
brain tumors. More recently, carboplatin has been investigated in clinical trials as a possible treatment for squamous cell skin cancers and malignant melanoma.

Chemotherapy Pill : Dosage

The dose of carboplatin can be calculated using several methods. A carboplatin dose can be determined using a mathematical calculation that measures a person’s body surface area (BSA). This number is dependent
upon a patient’s height and weight: the larger the person, the greater the body surface area. BSA is measured by the square meter (m2). The body surface area is calculated and then multiplied by the drug dosage in milligrams
per square meter (mg/m2). This calculates the actual dose a patient is to receive.

A common dosage of carboplatin alone for the treatment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer is 360 mg/ m2 given on day one into a vein every four weeks. When given in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide for the treatment of recurrent  ovarian cancer, a dose of 300 mg/m2 administered intravenously is typical. This combination is repeated every four weeks for six cycles.

The second way to determine the dose of carboplatin is for the physician to measure or estimate how well the patient’s kidneys work. The patient may be asked to collect all of their urine in a bottle for a 24-hour period. The sample will then be sent to a laboratory and analyzed. A mathematical calculation is performed to determine how well the patient’s kidneys are working and subsequently to determine the carboplatin dose.

Chemotherapy Pill : Precautions

Blood counts will be monitored regularly while on carboplatin therapy. During a certain time period after receiving carboplatin there is an increased risk of getting infections. Caution should be taken to avoid unnecessary
exposure to infectious agents. Patients should also check with their doctors before receiving live virus vaccines while on chemotherapy.

Patients who may be pregnant or trying to become pregnant should talk to their doctor before receiving carboplatin. Men and women undergoing chemotherapy are at risk of becoming sterile.

Patients with known previous allergic reactions to chemotherapy drugs should notify their doctors.

chemotherapy Pill

Chemotherapy Pill : Side effects

Most of the side effects of carboplatin are due to its induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Nausea and vomiting are among the most common side effects from receiving carboplatin. Nausea and vomiting can begin up to six hours after treatment and can last as long as 24 hours. Patients are given medicines known as antiemetics before receiving carboplatin to help prevent or
decrease this side effect. Diarrhea, loss of appetite, constipation, pain, and weakness have also been reported to occur.

chemotherapy pill – Myelosuppression, or a suppression of bone marrow activity resulting in a low blood cell count, is expected to occur following carboplatin administration. When a patient’s white blood cell count drops below
normal (leukopenia), there is an increased risk of developing a fever and infections. Neupogen, a drug used to increase the white blood cell count, may be administered.

A decrease in platelet count is most notable following carboplatin administration. Platelets are blood cells that aid for the formation of clots. When the platelet count becomes abnormally low, patients are at an  increased risk for bruising and bleeding. If the platelet count remains too low a platelet blood transfusion is an option. Low red blood cell counts (anemia) may also occur following many cycles of carboplatin administration; during the first cycles this is usually not a common problem. Low red blood cell counts may result in dizziness and fatigue and can be treated with the drug
erythropoietin.

A less common side effect of carboplatin is damage to nerves and nervous system tissues. Patients may feel tingling and numbness of the fingers and toes. This side effect is more common in patients over 65 years of age or those who have previously received the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.
Other less common side effects include rash, itching, hair loss (alopecia), mouth sores, hearing problems, kidney problems, liver problems, vision problems, swelling, redness and pain at the site of injection, allergic reactions, heart problems, and breathing problems.

Carboplatin may cause the body to waste certain normal electrolytes that circulate in the body. Low levels of magnesium, calcium, phosphate, or sodium can be found in patients who have received carboplatin. These
rarely cause difficulties and are monitored by the doctor.

Some patients develop hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to carboplatin that may include difficulty breathing, rash, itching, redness in the face, dizziness, an increased heart rate, and a drop in blood pressure. The risk of such reactions is increased in patients who have had more than six cycles of treatment with the drug. A group of researchers in Ohio has developed a skin test to evaluate patients for possible hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin, and a second team is working on a desensitization regimen that will allow patients who have become hypersensitive to the drug to continue to benefit from treatment with it.

Chemotherapy Pill : Interactions

Patients being treated with carboplatin should avoid other drugs that may cause damage to the kidneys or hearing.

Chemotherapy Pill

Chemotherapy Pill : Daunorubicin

Chemotherapy Pill : Daunorubicin

Chemotherapy Pill DaunorubicinDaunorubicin is an anti-cancer drug that kills cancer cells. The brand names are DaunoXome for the liposomal formulation and Cerubidine for the daunorubicin hydrochloride formulation.

Daunorubicin interferes with the cells’ production of DNA and RNA by inserting itself between the molecules that make up DNA and RNA. It also works by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for repairing of DNA(topoisomerase II enzyme). The structure of daunorubicin is very similar to that of doxorubicin, and both drugs function in the same way.

Chemotherapy Pill : Purpose

Daunorubicin is available in two different formulations, the daunorubicin hydrochloride and daunorubicin citrate liposome. The liposomal daunorubicin formulation places the drug in lipid molecules. This formulation is able to penetrate cancer cells more effectively because of its
smaller size, and it remains in the body longer when compared to the daunorubicin hydrochloride formulation. The daunorubicin hydrochloride is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is also sometimes used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and psoriasis. The liposomal formulation of daunorubicin is used to treat advanced HIV-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Chemotherapy Pill : Dosage

In the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), the dose is 30 to 60 mg of daunorubicin per  square meter of body surface area given for three to five days, and the dose is repeated every three to four weeks.

In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 25 to 45 mg per square meter of body surface area of daunorubicin may be given on day one every week for four cycles, or alternatively may be given at a dose of 30 to 45 mg per square meter of body surface area for three days. The dose for patients receiving daunorubicin citrate liposome is 20 to 40 mg per square meter of body surface area every two weeks, or 100 mg per square meter of body
surface area every three weeks.

Patients with decreased liver or kidney function may receive lower doses of the medication than other patients. This medication is usually administered directly into the vein (intravenous, or IV) over the course of three to five minutes. It may also be diluted in a solution to be given over fifteen minutes to one hour.

Chemotherapy Pill : Precautions

A major problem with the use of daunorubicin is that it may cause a serious heart problem known as heart failure. Some authorities suggest that giving any individual patient more than 900 to 1000 mg of daunorubicin
per square meter over the course of their entire life may increase risk of heart injury. Other authorities recommend that the total lifetime cumulative dose not exceed 550 milligrams per square meter. The patient’s baseline
heart function is obtained prior to starting therapy and is monitored every few cycles of chemotherapy. If the heart function is significantly decreased from baseline, the drug is discontinued.

Chemotherapy Pill : Side effects

There is a risk that heart rhythm problems will occur during daunorubicin therapy. Later, patients may develop heart failure. However, patients receiving daunorubicin are, in fact, less likely to develop such problems
than are patients receiving doxorubicin.

In addition, the activity of the bone marrow in producing white blood cells to fight infections, platelets to control bleeding, and red blood cells for oxygenation may be impaired by the drug. This and the development of heart problems are the major side effects that may cause doctors to lower the dose of daunorubicin.

Other side effects associated with daunorubicin therapy are nausea, vomiting, ulcerations of the mouth, diarrhea, and hair loss. In addition, the medication has a harmless side effect about which patients should be forewarned; urine and tears may take on a red color.

Patients receiving daunorubicin in conjunction with certain other anticancer drugs may (very rarely) develop a certain type of leukemia. The drug is also an irritant to the skin and tissues of the body. Patients who notice burning
or pain with infusion of the drug should notify the nurse immediately to assess if the drug has leaked from the vein into the surrounding tissue. If this occurs, the drug infusion is stopped immediately and appropriate actions are
taken tominimize side effects due to tissue damage.

Chemotherapy Pill

Chemotherpy Pill : Vinorelbine

Chemotherapy Pill : Vinorelbine

Chemotherpy Pill : Vinorelbine

Chemotherapy Pill – Vinorelbine is a drug used to treat certain types of lung cancer. Vinorelbine is available under the trade name Navelbine. The drug may also be referred to as vinorelbine tartrate, or didehydrodeoxynorvincaleukoblastine.

Vinorelbine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994. Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic derivative of vinblastine, a naturally occurring compound that is extracted from periwinkle plants. It belongs to a group of chemicals called vinca alkaloids. The chemical structure and
biological action of vinorelbine is similar to vinblastine and vincristine.

Vinorelbine prevents the formation of microtubules in cells. One of the roles of microtubules is to aid in the replication of cells. By disrupting this function vinorelbine inhibits cell replication, including the replication the cancer cells.

Vinorelbine is used alone and in combination with cisplatin (another anticancer drug) to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma. It has been used in combination with other drugs to treat breast cancer. As of 2000 vinorelbine was under investigation for the treatment for cervical cancer.

Chemotherapy Pill : Purpose

Vinorelbine is an antineoplastic agent used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma.
More recently, vinorelbine has been used in the palliative treatment of patients with advanced esophageal cancer and advanced breast cancer. Early reports of its effectiveness are encouraging.

Chemotherapy Pill : Dosage

Vinorelbine is administered by intravenous injection (directly into a vein) once per week. The initial dose may be adjusted downward depending on patient tolerance to the toxic side effects of treatment. If toxic effects are
severe, vinorelbine treatment may be delayed or discontinued.

Chemotherapy Pill : Precautions

imageVinorelbine must be administered only by individuals experienced in the use of this cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Vinorelbine must only be administered intravenously. Accidental administration of vinorelbine into the spinal cord fluid is a medical emergency that may result in death. Vinorelbine has a low therapeutic index, which means it is unlikely there will be therapeutic benefit without toxic side effects. Certain complications can only be managed by a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

Because vinorelbine is administered intravenously and is extremely irritating, the site of infusion and surrounding tissue should be monitored for signs of inflammation.

Blood tests are recommended to ensure that bone marrow function and the number of white blood cells is adequate for treatment to continue. Infections should also be controlled before vinorelbine treatment starts. Special caution should be used with patients whose bone marrow reserves have been reduced by previous radiation or chemotherapy treatment.

Chemotherapy Pill – Vinorelbine may cause harm to a fetus when administered to pregnant women. Only in life-threatening situations should this treatment be used during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age are advised not to become
pregnant during treatment. Women should stop nursing before beginning treatment due to the potential for serious adverse side effects in the nursing infants.

The safety of vinorelbine in children under 18 years of age has not been established.

Chemotherapy Pill : Side effects

The side effects of vinorelbine treatment are usually related to the dose of drug and are generally reversible. It is possible that toxic side effects may be more common in patients with poor liver function, and should be used
with caution in those patients.

Decreased bone marrow function is the principal adverse side effect. This can reduce the number of white blood cells and increase the chance of infections. Patients should report fever or chills to their doctors immediately. Patients should also inform their doctor if they experience abdominal pain, constipation, or an increase in shortness of breath.

Toxicity of the nervous system is another side effect. Shortness of breath is a potentially severe side effect that patients should report to their doctor. Additional side effects, including fever, anemia, an increase or decrease in blood pressure, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, hearing impairment, and hair loss (alopecia) may occur.

Several cases of heart attacks related to vinorelbine have been reported. A group of French researchers estimates that about 1% of patients treated with vinorelbine will develop heart problems; however, vinorelbine does not appear to have a higher rate of these side effects than other drugs in its class.

Chemotherapy Pill : Interactions

The use of vinorelbine in combination with another anticancer drug, mitomycin-C, has caused severe shortness of breath. Patients taking vinorelbine and cisplatin are more likely to experience a decrease in the number of white blood cells. This side effect should be carefully monitored to ensure that the number of white blood cells is adequate for treatment to continue. Patients taking vinorelbine and another anticancer drug, paclitaxel, may be more likely to experience toxicity of the nervous system, and should be carefully monitored for this. Drugs that may alter the metabolism of vinorelbine should be used with caution due to the potential for interactions.

chemotherapy pill – Patients who are treated with vinorelbine during or following radiotherapy may become hypersensitive to radiation treatment.

Chemotherapy Pill

Chemotherapy Pill : Mitoxantrone

Chemotherapy Pill : Mitoxantrone

Chemotherapy Pill : Mitoxantrone

Mitoxantrone, also known by its trade name Novantrone, is an anticancer agent effective against certain kinds of leukemias. It is also used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and was approved by the Federal Drug Administration
in 1987.

Mitoxantrone is classified as an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, and closely resembles another drug in this category, daunorubicin. Although its precise mechanism is not clear, mitoxantrone is cell cycle non-specific,
meaning that it is toxic to cells that are dividing, as well as those that are not.

Chemotherapy Pill : Purpose

Mitoxantrone is used with other drugs to treat acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), a category that includes myelogenous, promyelocytic, monocytic and erythroid acute leukemia. In adults, ANLL accounts for
up to 85% of all adult leukemia cases. Mitoxantrone may also be used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, ovarian cancer, advanced or recurrent breast cancer, prostate cancer,
and MS.

Chemotherapy Pill : Dosage

Chemotherapy Pill : MitoxantroneMitoxantrone is given intravenously over a thirtyminute time period. Chemotherapy dosages are based on a person’s body surface area (BSA), which is calculated in square meters using height and weight measurements.
Drug dosages are ordered in milligrams per square meter (mg/m2).

In patients with cancer, the recommended dosage for induction therapy is 12mg/ mg/m2 administered on the first three days of treatment. After that time, another chemotherapy drug is usually infused. This course of treatment is often adequate to induce remission, but may be repeated if it does not. In the second induction course, the dosage remains the same, but mitoxantrone is given for two days, rather than three, followed by other chemotherapy agents. Dosages may be altered, depending on the level of bone marrow toxicity the patient develops.

For patients with solid tumors, such as advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer, a single dose of 12mg/ mg/m2 is administered, and repeated every three to four weeks. Recent studies show that mitoxantrone used with glucocorticoids has resulted in improved pain control and quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

Chemotherapy Pill : Precautions

Mitoxantrone’s use in children has not been studied sufficiently to determine whether its use is safe and effective. It should not be used in individuals who have experienced a previous reaction to it.

Mitoxantrone is excreted by the liver and kidneys. It may alter the appearance of urine, causing it to be a bluegreen color for approximately 24 hours. The sclera, or whites of the eyes, may temporarily be blue-tinged. Patients should not be alarmed by this change, but should alert their doctors if it is prolonged or is accompanied by other symptoms.

Mitoxantrone should not be administered to pregnant women, as damage to the fetus may occur. Throughout treatment, women should use methods to prevent pregnancy. It is excreted in breast-milk, so breast-feeding should be avoided during treatment.

Chemotherapy Pill : Side effects

Mitoxantrone can cause severe and sometimes rapid myelosuppression leading to decreased white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts. Blood counts should be monitored frequently throughout treatment.
The white blood cells tend to nadir, or drop to their lowest point, within ten to fourteen days after mitoxantrone is administered. Patients should also be examined for symptoms of low white blood cell count, which typically resemble those of an infection: sore throat, burning with urination, increased temperature, or swelling. Patients should also be carefully monitored for indications that platelet count is low. Symptoms may include unexplained
bruises, bleeding or increased bleeding with menstruation, and headache.

Mitoxantrone can damage the heart, possibly causing changes that lead to congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients especially at risk are those previously treated with anthracyclines or radiation to the chest area, or
those with an already existing heart condition. Symptoms to watch for include swelling of the hands and ankles, difficulty breathing, or heart palpitations.

Mitoxantrone can cause a severe, painful inflammation of the mucous membranes called mucositis. The condition may develop within a week of treatment. A patient may experience a burning sensation in his or her
throat, as well as mouth pain. Mucositis typically resolves in a few weeks on its own, but there are measures one can take to hasten the process and provide comfort during healing. Hydration is very important to keep
the mouth moist. Good oral hygiene is important—the teeth should be brushed with a very soft toothbrush, and flossed gently with unwaxed dental floss. (If bleeding occurs, using a toothbrush may not be safe. Patients
should talk to their health care providers should this occur.) Your doctor or nurse may recommend a special mouthwash that helps relieve pain.

Patients undergoing treatment with mitoxantrone may be at risk for tumor lysis syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition that develops when large numbers of cells rupture and release their contents into the blood stream. Preventative measures should be implemented to prevent adverse effects.

Chemotherapy Pill  : Interactions

Because mitoxantrone can alter normal blood counts, medications that contain aspirin should be avoided. Aspirin acts as a blood-thinner, and can predispose a person to bleeding. Patients should discuss all medications, whether they are prescribed or over-thecounter drugs, with their doctor to ensure there are no potential interactions. Cytarabine, another drug used to
treat cancer, may increase the toxicity of mitixantrone if the drugs are used together.

Chemotherapy Pill